A History of Pergamum: Beyond Hellenistic Kingship by Richard Evans

By Richard Evans

The nation of Pergamum emerged from the nice interval of instability which the demise of Alexander the nice. Over the following century Pergamum used to be to develop into one of many wealthiest states within the japanese Mediterranean. The kingdom of Pergamum used to be included into the Roman Empire among 133/129 BCE and it will definitely grew to become Rome's wealthiest province. the total of Asia Minor suffered within the civil wars which ended the Roman Republic, and Pergamum didn't get away the exactions demanded of the Greek towns by way of Pompey, Caesar and Antony. within the next peace, ushered in via Augustus, Pergamum regained its prosperity and have become one of many cultural centres of the Roman Empire. Its ruling dynasty - the Attalids - have been buyers of the humanities and whereas in energy have been liable for the extraordinary embellishment in their capital at Pergamum. different extra old towns comparable to Ephesus and Miletus additionally benefited from their govt. This quantity surveys Pergamum's heritage from the past due 3rd Century BCE to the second one Century CE.

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So how could Eumenes have inflicted such a serious defeat on a ruler with many times the military capability enough to be able to gain not only territorially but – perhaps more significantly – to allow him psychological and physical space? There seems to have been no counter-attack; it is true that Antiochus died A Beginning and an End 17 within a year or two, but his heir had encountered no opposition so could have been free to launch measures against Pergamum, gain some military glory at the start of his reign and enhance his popularity.

It is possible that he was aiming to regain the Thracian lands west of the Hellespont which his father had briefly won from Lysimachus, but no source offers a clue to his intention. Still, his military resources were infinitely greater than those of some obscure local grandee in the Caicus Valley. Yet he appears to have lost a battle. It may be that Eumenes, who had only very recently succeeded to power, was in a rather stronger position than former residents of the area and was thus able to command his own troops and hire large numbers of mercenaries to whom he could then assign land.

So how could Eumenes have inflicted such a serious defeat on a ruler with many times the military capability enough to be able to gain not only territorially but – perhaps more significantly – to allow him psychological and physical space? There seems to have been no counter-attack; it is true that Antiochus died A Beginning and an End 17 within a year or two, but his heir had encountered no opposition so could have been free to launch measures against Pergamum, gain some military glory at the start of his reign and enhance his popularity.

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