By Edward G Harris

Written by way of a popular professor of physics, this introductory textual content is aimed toward graduate scholars taking a year-long direction in quantum mechanics during which the 3rd region is dedicated to relativistic wave equations and box conception. tricky options are brought steadily, and the speculation is utilized to bodily attention-grabbing problems.

After an introductory bankruptcy at the formation of quantum mechanics, the therapy advances to examinations of the quantum conception of the loose electromagnetic box, the interplay of radiation and topic, moment quantization, the interplay of quantized fields, and quantum electrodynamics. extra issues contain the idea of beta decay, debris that have interaction between themselves, quasi debris in plasmas and metals, and the matter of infinities in quantum electrodynamics. The Appendix includes chosen solutions to difficulties that seem through the textual content.

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**Example text**

If there are no sources of the field it is always possible to choose a gauge (called the Coulomb gauge) in which +=o and V*A=O Now, consider Maxwell's equations for a field without sources. The first three of these equations are satisfied identically when E and B are given in terms of the potentials by Eqs. 2-1, and # and A satisfy Eqs. 2-2. Equation 2-3d gives 26 Quantum Theory of the Free Electromagnetic Field Jn develo~inea quantum theory of the electroma~neticfield it is convenient Fourier analysis of the field in a large cubical box of voIume SZ = L G n d take the Fourier coefficients as the field v a h l e s .

Now, we calculate the transition probability per unit time for a free electron of momentum hq to emit a photon of momentum fik thereby changing its momentum to ti(q - k). We find trans prob 2vhc2 1 The matrix element in Eq. ,.. Letting 8 be the angle between q and k and letting v = Aqlna be the particIes velocity we find trans prob time ( - 4 r r2e2f i 2 ~ q ~ u , [ ~d [ c o i ~ - - - - -cI m ' Q h u k [ ( 1 / 2 m ) ( ~ / ~ w ) ~ ; r ) ~ ] ~ ~ nu ti~lt 2mcv Note that the photon is emitted at an angle to the path of the electron given by fiwn car B = I[I nu 2mc + yl 44 Interaction of Radiation and Matter If the energy of the photon hw is much less than the rest mass of the electron mc2then this is approximately cos 19 = clnu which gives the classical derenkov angle.

The amplitude of the wave is determined by the modulus of c and the phase is determined by the phase of c. This is the same form as Eq. 2-29 but the operators o and a+ have been replaced by the complex numbers c and cf. Brief caIcuIations like that of Eq. 2-36 show that Problem 2-1. Prove Eqs. 2-39a through 2-39c. We may define the uncertainty of the number of photons in the state Ic) in analogy with Eq. 1-67 by The relative uncertainty is This becomes very small when the expectation value of the number o f photons in this mode becomes very large.