By N. Simons, B. Menzies, M. Matthews
This new addition to the 'Short direction' sequence combines either soil and rock slope engineering - in impact, brief classes - in a single concise quantity. Like its acclaimed spouse quantity a quick direction in beginning Engineering, this e-book makes a speciality of the necessities, explaining easy tools of balance research and using them to a variety of sensible functions.
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Extra info for A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering (Short Course Series)
This could be attributed to a gradual extension of ®ssures within the specimens. Sampling disturbance and test specimen size If the test specimen is disturbed by the sampling process, the measured undrained shear strength will generally be lower than the in situ value for a given test apparatus and procedure. Thin-walled piston samples jacked into the ground cause very little disturbance and this technique, together with careful handling in the ®eld, during transit, and in the laboratory, are believed to give reasonably reliable measurements of the undrained shear strength of clay.
It is therefore necessary to take this factor into account when using the results of in situ vane tests or undrained triaxial compression tests, with a failure time of the order of 10 min, to predict the short term stability of cuttings and embankments, where the shear stresses leading 43 SHORT COURSE IN SOIL AND ROCK SLOPE ENGINEERING Fig. 11 Vane strength correction factor for soft clays, after Bjerrum (1973) ½ (σ′1–σ′3) max (kg/cm2) 2·5 σc = 1·0 kg/cm2 σc = 2·0 kg/cm2 σc = 4·0 kg/cm2 2·0 1·5 1·0 0·5 0 (a) Pore pressure parameter: Af 2·5 2·0 1·5 1·0 0·5 0 0·01 10 min 0·5 1 hour 5 10 1 day 50 100 500 1000 1 week 1 month Time to failure: hours (b) Fig.
Other evidence was provided by laboratory tests on 38 mm dia. specimens cut from block samples of ®ssured clay from Wraysbury, which were stored for different periods before testing. Strengths of specimens cut from blocks stored for about 150 days before testing were only about 75% of the strengths of specimens prepared from blocks within 5 days of excavation from the shaft. This could be attributed to a gradual extension of ®ssures within the specimens. Sampling disturbance and test specimen size If the test specimen is disturbed by the sampling process, the measured undrained shear strength will generally be lower than the in situ value for a given test apparatus and procedure.