By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph presents a world viewpoint on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been realized over the past decade via study and functional adventure on the best way to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the booklet, common medical matters are offered in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the bizarre organic positive aspects that take place within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an outline of equipment presently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the e-book is a suite of local surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 eu nations and Australia, and case reports of assorted person consultant lakes. a last case examine offers an cutting edge method of assessing the commercial price of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a helpful device for determination makers.
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Extra resources for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
Karakas et al. 2 0 −5 10 20 Temperature [°C] 30 0 10 20 30 Temperature [°C] Fig. 3 Conductivity (left panel) and density (right panel) of a mixolimnion sample and a monimolimnion sample from Waldsee, Germany versus temperature (from Boehrer et al. 2009a, with permission of American Geophysical Union) Nowadays, the pure water reference qW can be taken from Kell (1975) or Tanaka et al. (2001). The density difference Dq can be a constant or a polynomial in temperature DqðTÞ. g. Jellison et al. 1999).
2001; for details on the characteristics of the zones see text) A larger interface allows for more intense and faster interaction, including pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonates and feldspars. Many publications on the influence of mining on groundwater exist. The following literature can be recommended for information on the relevant processes, including the long-lasting effects after mine closure: Grützmacher et al. 2001; McLemore 2008; Niccoli 2009a, b; Wisotzky and Obermann 2001; Wolkersdorfer 2008; Younger et al.
As a consequence, some mineral deposits have gained mobility, such as metal ions after oxidation of their sulfide deposits. Depending on the paths they have taken before entering a pit lake, groundwaters from various aquifers can greatly vary in their concentrations of dissolved substances. As a consequence, pit lakes in general are exposed to high mineral gradients. 36 3 Limnology of Pit Lakes Fig. 2 Documented precipitation processes responsible for sustaining meromixis Substance Lake, country Reference Sodium sulphate Organic material Calcite Iron Manganese Shield lakes, Canada Längssee, Austria Lake La Cruz, Spain Swinsjöen, Norway Lake Nordbytjernet, Norway O2 mixo-limnion Rawson and Moore (1944) Frey (1955) Rodrigo et al.