By C. Hellio, D. Yebra
A precis of present learn and its useful implications, this e-book discusses marine fouling organisms and their influence, trying out and improvement of antifouling coatings, advancements in chemically-active marine antifouling applied sciences, and new floor ways to the keep watch over of marine biofouling. It offers an authoritative assessment of contemporary advances in knowing the biology of fouling organisms, the newest advancements on antifouling screening suggestions either within the box and within the laboratory, learn on more secure energetic compounds and the development on unhazardous coatings with tailored floor houses.
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Extra info for Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies (Woodhead Publishing in Materials)
2000). , 1991). , 1984). Unpublished data show that diatoms allowed to settle to discs for 2–3 weeks were able to withstand shear stresses of 120. 4 N/m2, which is equivalent to 10 knots, while diatoms tolerate much higher shear stress on ships in service (Daniel, 1983). , 1984). , 2006). , 2006). , 2006). 7 Development of antifouling coatings Antifouling paints have undergone dramatic changes since 1952, when the active life might be as low as a few months to one year. , 2004). , isothiazolones, pyrithiones, see Chapter 20 Thomas); selection of the carrier or matrix (rosin, silyl acrylates, metal acrylates, see Chapter 18 Bressy) and pigments (cuprous oxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, see Chapter 13 Yebra); and leaching rate of active ingredients (Anon, 1952; Relini, 1977, 1988; Chapter 17 Howell).
Burgess et al. 2003; Eguía and Trueba 2007) and even live bacteria (Gatenholm et al. 1995; Holmström et al. 2000; Yee et al. 2007), has been demonstrated using prototype coatings in ﬁeld trials. The deterrent bacteria or ‘living paint’ approach is particularly intriguing for its potential to provide a long-lived, broad-spectrum solution to fouling control. , Holmström et al. 1998) – Pseudoaltermonas tunicata – in κ-carrageenan beads, Yee et al. (2007) obtained promising short-term antifouling performance in a ﬁeld trial, while highlighting the need for further development of the immobilising matrix to improve performance.
1991; Dobretsov et al. 2007). A combined nanotube-enzyme approach to improve the antifouling performance of a poly(methyl methacrylate) coating (Asuri et al. 2006) has proved effective against model proteins, but to the author’s knowledge has yet to be investigated for marine antifouling. The use of enzymes was dismissed as being only of academic interest by Christie and Dalley (1987) on the basis of cost, but this should be less of an issue since the advent of commercial-scale production of bacterial enzymes for biological detergents.