By S.I. Cohen
This learn is an try to give a contribution to our knowing of 1 of crucial reforms presently endorsed by means of improvement economists to minimize rural poverty in constructing nations: land reform. Dr. Cohen has dependent his research on types within which 3 social teams are performing: those, for brevity's sake, are referred to as land lords, peasants and the teams who contain the non-agricultural area. Peasants comprise the so-called landless peasants which western international locations typically time period agrarian employees. the strategy should be prolonged to greater numbers of teams. The actors are interested in quite a few actions, together with construction, intake and saving, the latter being to be had both for actual or for monetary make investments ment. this means that quite a few wealth elements seem within the version along flows of products and companies. Use is made from determinate versions with linear and non-linear equations of a dynamic personality. The versions are hired to estimate socio-economic improvement below substitute regimes. Regimes fluctuate, at the one hand, based on which staff is in energy and, nonetheless, based on the tools of monetary coverage they use. it really is an enticing characteristic of Dr. Cohen's research that the types are utilized to 2 nations for which the entire priceless statistical fabric has been envisioned: India and Chile. For either nations a short socio-political comic strip precedes the numerical software of the versions. For India 5 tools of socio-economic coverage are thought of: land transfers, measures to stimulate productiveness, credits guidelines, taxes and tenure and salary rules.
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Additional info for Agrarian structures and agrarian reform: Exercises in development theory and policy (Studies in Development and Planning)
This requires frequent revisions upwards in order to maintain the real rate of taxation. In practice, such revisions are repeated every ten or fifteen years, which reduces the significance of the tax remarkably. In some less-developed countries the land tax takes the form of a tax on rent or, in a slightly different form, the base is taken as the market value of land. Although the base in these taxes does not represent the potential produce but rather the actual produce, rent taxes and market value taxes can be considered as traditional land taxes under certain conditions.
Land-redistribution laws If land reform is to be massive, rapid and effective there can be no illusions about its political, juridical and administrative simplicity. Some of the phases through which land reform passes are the spon- THE ECONOMICS OF AGRARIAN REFORM 25 soring of the reform, its formulation and legislation, its specification for individual farms, and seeing to it that the specifications are applied. A programme ofland redistribution requires collection of data on rights, size and quality of land holdings and making decisions on such problems as which lands should be subject to the redistribution and what are the criteria?
Such estates are units of political control, run on authoritarian lines. They are managed for the absentee owner by salaried officials, and are worked by people of semi-serf status who occupy a subsistence plot, in return for which they must work on the estate, either unpaid or paid in kind or paid in money at rates usually below the current wage rate for seasonal labour. Plantations: In plantation systems, the large property is a large enterprise or a firm in the economic sense. The estate may be run by a company, often a foreign company, with large capital resources, or it may be held in private ownership.