By Robert B. Ewen
This seventh Edition helps scholars resolve the mysteries of human habit via its hugely readable advent to the tips of the main major character theorists.
Engaging biographical sketches commence each one bankruptcy, and exact pill summaries aid scholars assessment key concepts. Theories come alive in the course of the inclusion of quotations from the theorists’ writings and diverse functions similar to dream interpretation, psychopathology, and psychotherapy.
Significant adjustments within the seventh version comprise a longer dialogue of the sensible functions of character concept, with an emphasis on guidance which could aid humans bring up their self-knowledge, make greater judgements, and reside extra satisfying lives.
Fictionalized yet true-to-life examples illustrating the perils of insufficient self-knowledge comprise students, mom and dad, terrorists, enterprise executives, and politicians, whereas different examples express the confident results which could outcome from a greater knowing of one’s unconscious.
This seventh version additionally incorporates a extra vast dialogue of the way a scarcity of self-understanding triggered problems for such famous theorists as Freud and Erikson, and a brand new part that explains how habit should be strongly inspired by way of the location in addition to by way of one’s personality.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Theories of Personality: 7th Edition
Cs. ality … a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations” (Freud, 1933/1965b, p. 73). The id transforms biological needs into psychological tension (drives). Its only goal is to gain pleasure by reducing these drives (the aforementioned pleasure principle). The id is totally illogical and Preconscious amoral, however, and has no conception of reality or self-preservation. Its only resource is to form mental images of what it wants, a process called wish-fulfillment. The id is like an impulsive child that wants d pleasure right away, so it demands an immediate substitute if its initial sse re p choice is frustrated.
Freud’s theory of personality has also provoked strong resistance, but here there are additional reasons for controversy. Early in Freud’s career, three men whom he admired gave him similar (and startling) bits of information. Josef Breuer, with whom Freud later coauthored the landmark Studies on Hysteria (Freud & Breuer, 1895/1966), remarked that neurotic behaviors were always concerned with secrets of the marital bed. Jean-Martin Charcot emphatically proclaimed to an assistant that certain nervous disorders were “always a question of the genitals,” a conversation Freud overheard.
During this period Freud also began his self-analysis (1897), probing the depths of his own mind with the psychological techniques that he developed. Though his creative illness ended by 1900, he continued the self-analysis for the remainder of his life and reserved the last half-hour of each day for this purpose. Personally, Freud was highly moral and ethical—even puritanical. Some found him cold, bitter, rejecting, the kind of man who does not suffer fools gladly, and more interested in the discoveries to be made from his patients than in themselves.