An Introduction to Traffic Flow Theory (Springer by Lily Elefteriadou

By Lily Elefteriadou

This textual content offers a finished and concise remedy of the subject of site visitors stream thought and comprises a number of subject matters correct to today’s street transportation method. It offers the elemental rules of site visitors movement thought in addition to functions of these rules for comparing particular sorts of amenities (freeways, intersections, etc.). more moderen techniques of clever transportation structures (ITS) and their strength influence on site visitors circulate are mentioned. state of the art in site visitors stream study and microscopic site visitors research and site visitors simulation have considerably complicated and also are mentioned during this textual content. actual global examples and important challenge units supplement every one chapter.

This textbook is intended to be used in complicated undergraduate/graduate point classes in site visitors circulate idea with necessities together with semesters of calculus, statistics, and an introductory direction in transportation. The textual content may even be of curiosity to transportation pros as a refresher in site visitors move conception, or as a reference. scholars and engineers of various backgrounds will locate this article obtainable and acceptable to today’s site visitors issues.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Traffic Flow Theory (Springer Optimization and Its Applications)

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The amount of information presented to drivers. Designing the roadway environment in accordance to driver expectations facilitates information processing; therefore, providing consistency between successive design elements is very important. Presenting information sequentially, rather than all at once, also helps distribute the workload and facilitates information processing. Vision: According to [11], 90 % of the information drivers use is visual. The following aspects of vision are important: visual acuity, the ability to see well at a distance; contrast sensitivity, the ability to see differences in luminance between an object and its background; peripheral vision, the ability to detect objects outside the area of most accurate vision; movement in depth, the ability Effects of Driver Characteristics and Behavior on the Motion of a Single Vehicle 21 to estimate the speed of another vehicle; and visual search, the ability to search the rapidly changing environment from within a moving vehicle and collect pertinent information.

For example, [14] conducted three focus groups to investigate drivers’ intended actions along a freeway-ramp-merging segment. The study used “selfishness” as a criterion to develop three behavioral categories: aggressive, average, and conservative. It also found that the degree of aggressiveness of each driver varies as a function of their task and the prevailing traffic conditions. Reference [15] collected driver behavior-related data to develop a new lane-changing modeling framework for urban arterials.

Also, the model requires the use of a theoretical spacing which cannot be violated, as it does not allow for deviations from the “following distance” law assumed. In reality, drivers have a time lag in reacting to changes in the lead vehicle’s trajectory and position themselves with considerable deviation from this law, with significant variability in their spacing, both between vehicles, and longitudinally for a particular driver. Regardless of these limitations, the Pipes model opened the door to significant development in the area of car-following.

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