Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High by ASM International

By ASM International

A complete consultant to compositions, homes, functionality, and choice of solid irons, carbon and low-alloy steels, device steels, stainless steels, and superalloys. includes 1,328 illustrations (photographs, charts, and graphs). greater than 500 tables offer broad information for alloy designations, compositions, and mechanical and actual homes.

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The rate of reduction can be reduced through alloy additions (Fig. 12 ). The numerical value of the modulus in torsion is always less than it is in tension, as is the case with steel. 5 Fig. 11 Interrelationship of mechanical properties, section diameter, carbon equivalent, and liquidus temperature of gray iron. Data are from one foundry and are based on dry sand molding and ferrosilicon inoculation. Fig. 12 Elastic modulus as a function of temperature in various alloyed gray cast irons. Source: Ref 7 Copyright ASM International.

After solidification, the eutectic cell structure and the proeutectic austenite dendrites cannot be distinguished metallographically except by special etching or in strongly hypoeutectic iron. With eutectic compositions, obviously, solidification takes place as the molten alloy is cooled through the normal eutectic temperature range, but without the prior formation of a proeutectic constituent. During the solidification process, the controlling factor remains the rate at which the solidification is proceeding.

It is emphasized that the number of cycles of alternating stress implied in Fig. 14 is the number normally used to determine fatigue limits, that is, approximately 10 million. Fewer cycles, as encountered in infrequent overloads, will be safer than indicated by a particular point plotted on a diagram for infinite life. Too few data are available to draw a diagram for less than infinite life. Fatigue Notch Sensitivity. In general, very little allowance need be made for a reduction in fatigue strength caused by notches or abrupt changes of section in gray iron members.

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