Biomass Crops: Production, Energy, and the Environment by Alfred P. Haggerty

By Alfred P. Haggerty

Within the strength undefined, biomass refers to organic fabric that are used as gasoline or for business creation. Biomass comprises plant topic grown to be used as biofuel, in addition to plant or animal topic used for construction of fibres, chemical compounds or warmth. This e-book offers present study within the research of biomass vegetation, together with the conversion of wooden into liquid fuels; alfalfa biomass construction; gasification of biomass in aqueous media and biofuel construction capability.

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Extra info for Biomass Crops: Production, Energy, and the Environment (Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology: Energy Policies, Politics and Prices)

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However, viscosity in the pyrolysis oil varies depending on many parameters including water content and average molecular weight. Viscosity also increases with time as a result of aging reactions, where organic molecules recombine and polymerize into larger molecular weight oligomers. Hence, values in excess of 1000 cP have been reported for oils with low water content and exposed to ambient conditions or high temperatures for long periods of time. Conventional injectors may not work for liquids with such high viscosity values.

Heat transfer occurs by the 24 G. San Miguel, J. R. , 2001). Char and sand are continuously transported through a hole to a fluid bed combustor and reheated sand is returned to the reactor through a standpipe, a riser and a cyclone. Pyrolysis vapors are ejected at the top of the reactor and there is negligible vapor transfer to the char combustor. , 1994). Hence, this technology requires very small particle size and very high reaction temperatures to ensure complete pyrolysis of the feedstock (Janse et al.

Chemical instability in pyrolysis oils can be evaluated using accelerated aging tests. Exposure of the oils to 80ºC over 24 hours has been reported to be equivalent to one year storage at room temperature in terms of aging (Hilten and Das, 2010; Oasmaa and Kuoppala, 2003). It has also been observed that alkaline metals present in the solid chars effectively catalyze aging reactions. The addition of polar solvents like ethanol and methanol has been reported to increase the stability of the oil, which can be stored for longer periods of time without deterioration of fuel properties (Diebold, 2000).

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