By Blasone M.

During this lecture notes, we speak about canonical changes within the context of Quantum box concept (QFT).The goal isn't that of supply an entire and exhaustive therapy of canonical modifications from a mathematical perspective. really, we'll try and convey, via a few concrete examples, the actual relevance of those changes within the framework of QFT. This relevance is on degrees: a proper one, during which canonical modifications are a massive device for the certainty of simple facets of QFT, comparable to the lifestyles of inequivalent representations of the canonical commutation family (see x1.2) or the best way symmetry breaking happens, via a (homogeneous or non-homogeneous) condensation mechanism (see part 4), nonetheless, also they are precious within the research of particular actual difficulties, just like the superconductivity (see x2.2) or the sector blending (see part 5).

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We have J3 = 0. 75) we see that the superfluid current does diverge at r = 0; this however does not happen in practice since the current should be well defined everywhere, thus it is zero at the vortex center. 20 21 This is possible due to the linearity of the equation for f . Then θ satisfies ∇2 θ = 0. 1 Fermion mixing In this Section we will consider the mixing transformations for fermion fields in QFT [22]. Since we have in mind neutrinos, for which we will consider flavour oscillations, we will specialize in the following discussion to neutrino Dirac fields.

We can define an invariance transformation for the dynamics as an automorphism of the algebra A of the canonical variables (Heisenberg algebra). ) and in particular the commutation relations, then it is a canonical transformation: the equations of motion, which in the Heisenberg representation are algebraic relation among the elements of A, are invariant under its action. e. if it leaves invariant the transition probabilities. It is an important result due to Wigner[19], that any transformation of exact symmetry can be described in terms of an operator U : H → H which is unitary or anti-unitary.

For which the proper time is ∝ η). 68) The same result holds for an accelerated observer in region L. Since this is the Planck spectrum for a radiation at temperature T0 = a/2πk0 . Thus, an accelerated observer in flat space will experience the Minkowski vacuum as a thermal bath. By conformal transformation, it is possible to relate this result to the thermal bath seen by an inertial observer in curved space (Hawking effect). 1 Spontaneous symmetry breaking In Section 1 we have seen how QFT has a dual structure: on one side there are the fundamental entities (Heisenberg fields) in terms of which the dynamics is described, on the other the observed particles (described by free fields).