By Ralf Riedel, I-Wei Chen
Even though ceramics were identified to mankind actually for millennia, learn hasn't ever ceased. except the vintage makes use of as a bulk fabric in pottery, building, and ornament, the latter half the 20 th century observed an explosive progress of software fields, equivalent to electric and thermal insulators, wear-resistant bearings, floor coatings, light-weight armour, or aerospace fabrics. as well as undeniable, difficult solids, sleek ceramics are available in many new guises akin to materials, ultrathin motion pictures, microstructures and hybrid composites.
outfitted at the stable foundations laid down through the 20-volume sequence fabrics technology and know-how, Ceramics technology and expertise selections out this intriguing fabric type and illuminates it from all sides.
fabrics scientists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, physicists and clinical researchers alike will locate this paintings a treasure trove for quite a lot of ceramics wisdom from concept and basics to sensible techniques and challenge options.
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Extra resources for Ceramics Science and Technology Volume 4: Applications
The volatility of silica can be measured by monitoring its weight loss or recession. A linear rate constant, kl, can be determined experimentally in terms of either weight loss or recession: kl ¼ Dm=t or k0l ¼ Dx=t ð31Þ where Dm is the speciﬁc mass change (mass change per unit surface area) in time t, and Dx is the change in oxide thickness in time t. The linear rate constant can also be modeled using relationships for transport through a gas boundary layer. More speciﬁcally, the volatility of silica is limited by transport of Si(OH)4 through the water vapor-containing gas.
The solubilities of the oxidant in silica have been determined for oxygen and water vapor by Norton  and Moulson and Roberts , respectively. The magnitudes of the measured solubilities are in agreement with values reported by Deal and Grove . Doremus  attributed the solubility of water in silica to the formation of SiOH groups by the following reaction: Si À O À Si þ H2 O ¼ SiOH þ HOSi ð23Þ The OH groups are relatively immobile and diffusion of molecular water is the mechanism by which water diffuses in silica.
The reactive component of Na2SO4 is Na2O formed by: Na2 SO4 ðlÞ ¼ Na2 OðsÞ þ SO3 ðgÞ ð14Þ The equilibrium constant, Kp, for Eq. (14) is given by: DG ¼ 526500 À 118T ¼ ÀRT ln K p ¼ ÀRT ln½aðNa2 OÞPðSO3 Þ ð15Þ where DG is the free energy change of reaction (14), R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, a is activity, and P is pressure. In this case, a low thermodynamic activity of Na2O [a(Na2O)] set by a high partial pressure of SO3 [P(SO3)], is termed an acidic molten salt. A high thermodynamic activity of Na2O, set by a low P(SO3), is termed a basic molten salt.