By Zdzislaw E. Sikorski
A sophisticated text/reference, this ebook presents an summary of the composition, constitution, and performance of key foodstuff elements and their results on meals product caliber. It emphasizes the mechanisms of reactions of elements in foodstuff structures in the course of garage and processing and their results at the caliber attributes of foodstuff items, together with foodstuff and sensory attributes. foreign specialists offer concise shows of the present country of data at the content material, constitution, chemical reactivity, and sensible homes of nutrition parts. This moment version contains new chapters overlaying chemical composition and constitution in meals and probiotics in meals.
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Additional info for Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Components
According to the model proposed by Wiggins (1990), two types of water structure can be distinguished: high-density water and low-density water. In dense water the bent, relatively weak hydrogen bonds predominate over straight, stronger ones. Low-density water has many ice-like straight hydrogen bonds. Although hydrogen bonding is still continuous through the liquid, the weakness of the bonds allows the structure to be disrupted by thermal energy extremely rapidly. High-density water is extremely reactive and more liquid, whereas low-density water is inert and more viscous.
A small amount of water is transported through certain membrane transport proteins, such as a glucose transporter or the anion channel of erythrocytes. The major volume of water passes through water transport proteins. The first isolated water transporting protein was the channel-forming integral protein from red blood cells. The identification of this protein has led to the recognition of a family of related water-selective channels, the aquaporins, that are found in animals, plants, and microbial organisms.
F, muscle fiber; MF, myofibril. 2 Schematic structure of skeletal muscle: tendon (1), epimysium (2), perimysium (3), endomysium (4), sarcolemma (5), myofibril (6), muscle fiber (7), and bundle of muscle fibers (8). 2 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS Milk is a liquid secretion of the mammary glands of female mammals, consisting of 80–90% water and 10–20% dry mass. It is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion composed of fat and fat-soluble vitamins; the aqueous phase contains proteins, mineral salts, lactose, and water-soluble vitamins.