By Raymond S Koff; George Y Wu
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MODES OF TRANSMISSION In contrast to hepatitis A and E, in which most infections occur from oral ingestion of the virus, or from contact with infected individuals, hepatitis B and hepatitis C are transmitted primarily by parenteral routes. Blood and Tissue Transmission Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C can be very efficiently transmitted by blood transfusions, transplantation of infected organs, or injection drug use. In addition, administration of contaminated vaccines and use of non- Chapter 2 / Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C 29 Fig.
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11. Liang TJ, Rehermann B, Seeff LB, Hoofnagle JH. Pathogenesis, natural history, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis C. Ann Int Med 2000; 132: 296–305. 12. Hagedorn CH, Rice CM, editors. The hepatitis C viruses (Current Topics Microbiol Immunol, Vol. 242). Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. Chapter 1 / Molecular Virology of Hepatitis B and C 23 13. Bartenschlager R, Lohmann V. Replication of hepatitis C virus. J Gen Virol 2000; 81: 1631–1648. 14. Suzuki R, Suzuki T, Ishii K, Matsuura Y, Miyamura T.