By Federation Internationale des Ingenieurs Conseils ( FIDIC )
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Additional resources for Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design-build for Electrical and Mechanical Works and for Building and Engineering Works Designed by the Contractor
As this process is not sensitive to joint thickness, relatively heavy parts can be brazed. It is applied to base metals ranging from thin foil to sections 1 in. to 2 in. (25 mm to 50 mm) thick. 1. 50—Infrared Brazing Apparatus with this method. The parts are usually ﬁxtured mechanically or tack-welded together. Butt and lap joints with good mechanical properties are created. Although diffusion brazing requires a relatively long time (30 minutes to 24 hours) to complete, a number of assemblies can be brazed simultaneously.
When the frequency is increased from 60 hertz (Hz) to 400 kilohertz (kHz), the heating effect is not as deep but is more concentrated, thus resulting in increased welding speeds and increased productivity. Less electrical power is required when using high-frequency current due to concentrating the heat where needed rather than spreading it out. However, high-frequency current can cause hazards as it broadcasts electrical noise that can affect the performance of sensitive electronic equipment that may be in the area.
Equipment costs are high. This process is economical only when close dimensional tolerances, expensive materials, or special material properties are involved. For this reason, diffusion welding is widely used mainly by the aerospace, nuclear, and electronics industries. Although it is sometimes used to fabricate complex, one-of-a-kind devices, it is better suited to moderate production volumes. Diffusion welding is not adaptable to a high production rate. Moreover, the costs incurred in the use of consumables are high if precious ﬁller metals or inert gases are used.