Creative Plans for Yard and Garden Structures: 42 by Connie Brown

By Connie Brown

Publication by way of Brown, Connie, Debacker, Matt

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Extra resources for Creative Plans for Yard and Garden Structures: 42 Easy-To-Build Designs for Gazebos, Sheds, Pool Houses, Playsets, Bridges and More!

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7 Values quoted in Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts, by G. Charlot and B. TremiIIon, Tremillon, pub. Pergamon Press, 1969 (translated from French). 1 ~~ III ~ 36 SOLVENTS AND SOLUTES fraction of a salt in a sufficiently concentrated solution remains practically negligible in comparison with the part present in the form of ion-pairs. For B going from 10 to about 40, the proportion of free ions ceases to be negligible, but there still is formation of ion-pairs, except in very dilute solution.

Electrostatic Coulomb forces between ions of opposite sign, their magnitude increasing inversely as B, are responsible for this. It is already known, since the Debye-Hiickel theory (l923), that these electrostatic forces, at long distance, are the cause of the divergences between the activity and the concentration of free ions in solution, divergences which increase with the ionic strength. It was by completing this theory that Bjerrum (1926) produced the first justification of the existence of ion-pairs and gave SOLVENTS AND SOLUTES 37 the first theoretical treatment of the subject.

It is only very small or highly 39 SOLVENTS AND SOLUTES charged ions which can exhibit a weak ionic association in concentrated solution. 15 But in a solvent of low dielectric constant (e < about 40) the critical distance dc, inversely proportional to e, becomes greater that the closest approach distance for all electrolytes. As a result the proportion of associ ated ions cannot be neglected. The theory developed by Bjerrum gives an expression from which the value of the association constant may be calculated: K )3 _ 4nN(ZlZ2Ne 2 -ass 1000 eRT f b expy _ --dyy4 2 where: _ b 4nN (ZlZ2Ne 2 - Q( ) 1000 eRT '" )3 (1-6) 40 SOLVENTS AND SOLUTES and 2 1 de (I-7) eRT a a The function Q(b) (a transcendental exponential integral function) can be calculated numerically; there are tables of values in existence which can be used for calculation of Kass.

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