By Dr Matin Naqvi
This ebook publications the reader in the course of the hydraulic layout of drainage channels during which the quantity of circulation raises linearly from one finish of the channel to the opposite. this example is quite common in roof gutters and road drainage channels, either one of which obtain water from the adjoning surfaces at a nearly uniform rate.
Design of Linear Drainage structures starts off with an advent of the fundamental hydraulic parameters, protecting subject matters required in channel circulation theory.
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Extra resources for Design of Linear Drainage Systems
The depth of water in a uniform flow is constant, but not so in a varied flow. Here, a third force, the unbalanced hydrostatic force, which acts from one cross section of flow to the next, also becomes operative. 37 02 29/7/03 09:11 Page 38 Design of linear drainage systems Among the three forces just described, the gravitational force is a body force, and so it acts on the volume of flow. The frictional force is concentrated in a narrow region next to the surface of contact between the water and the channel.
It can be verified that, for a given cross sectional area, a semicircular channel provides a minimum wetted perimeter. However, the condition of the wetted perimeter being minimum does not always control the selection of a drainage system for, from the manufacturer’s point of view, a particular shape of the channel may sometimes have greater appeal. 3) T In a rectangular channel, the hydraulic depth and the depth of flow are identical. The hydraulic depth of a channel is the characteristic length in the expression for the Froude number, F, a non-dimensional parameter, the magnitude of which identifies the flow as sub-critical or super-critical (see Chapter 6).
It is imperative, therefore, to treat the flow as non-uniform. We also observe that the variation of flow in a normal drainage channel is gradual which is in contrast with the rapid flow, such 23 02 29/7/03 09:11 Page 24 Design of linear drainage systems as the flow over a spillway. In a gradually varied flow, the pressure distribution over the cross section of flow is hydrostatic, extending the validity of the relationship between the coefficient of roughness and the mean velocity of flow, initially developed for the uniform flow, to varied flow.