Development Finance and Policy Reform: Essays in Theory and by Paul Mosley

By Paul Mosley

Conditionality has lengthy been utilized by the IMF, and extra lately through global financial institution and bilateral donors, as an device for making improvements to the effectiveness of foreign finance. This choice of essays, through representatives of donors and recipients in addition to self reliant observers, means that due to recipients' elevated bargaining strength, such an development has seldom resulted.

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Additional resources for Development Finance and Policy Reform: Essays in Theory and Practice of Conditionality in Less Developed Countries (International Political Economy Series)

Example text

In certain cases the Bank might finance a so-called 'timeslice' of the agency's investment programme, which would be some fixed percentage of the agency's total investments in each year over some period of time (say five years). This description of the 'new way' of doing such projects is an idealisation in many respects, but serves to emphasise differences with the 'old way' of approaching such projects. These new-style loans are sometimes referred to as 'sector investment' operations. Another method being developed to introduce a stronger policy focus in the Bank's lending operations, is to incorporate a mid-term review of policy developments at some mid-point in the operation.

By the mid-1980s, most of the sub-Saharan states found themselves in a vicious economic cycle of low exports, high debt service, insufficient imports and stagnating growth. Under the impact of weakening export performance and the collapse of non-concessional flows (for most of the 1980s, non-concessional flows and export earnings generated well under one-half of Africa's foreign exchange inflows), and despite rapidly expanded flows from the IFIs, import levels were forced to contract, dropping 40 per cent in per capita terms between 1980 and 1986.

How valid is that assumption? While African states have a powerful incentive to enter into conditionality-based agreements their desperate need for the foreign exchange that accompanies such agreements - they have much weaker incentives to implement the conditions that they have agreed to, nor do they always have the technical or political capacity to do so. These disincentives derive from several different sources: characteristics of the international system, incentives in the IFIs and donor agencies, and politics in African countries.

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